Spasticity is a muscle control disorder that is characterized by tight or stiff muscles and an inability to control those muscles. In addition, reflexes may persist for too long and may be too strong (hyperactive reflexes). For example, an infant with a hyperactive grasp reflex may keep his or her hand in a tight fist.
What Causes Spasticity ?
Spasticity is caused by an imbalance of signals from the central nervous spinal cord) to the muscles. This imbalance is often found in people with cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke,multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury.
What Are the Symptoms of Spasticity ?
- Increased muscle tone
- Overactive reflexes
- Involuntary movements, which may include spasms (brisk and/or sustained involuntary muscle contraction) and clonus (series of fast involuntary contractions)
- Decreased functional abilities and delayed motor development
- Difficulty with care and hygiene
- Abnormal posture
- Contractures (permanent contraction of the muscle and tendon due to severe persistent stiffness and spasms)
- Bone and joint deformities
How Is Spasticity Diagnosed ?
Your doctor will evaluate your medical history in order to diagnose spasticity. He or she will look at what medications you have taken and whether you have a history of neurological or muscular disorders in yourself or your family. Several tests can help confirm the diagnosis. These tests evaluate your arm and leg movements, muscular activity, passive and active range of motion, and ability to perform self-care activities.